INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN 

Instructional Design Overview

Definition:

Instructional Design (ID): "A systematic approach to creating training that meets the needs of the trainees and the organization while being as effective and efficient as possible." (Piskurich, 2015). Instructional Design is a fundamental process of procedural guidelines to effectively plan a training from creation to attainment. 

 

The ADDIE Model:

The ADDIE Model is the most recognized and widely used model in Instructional Design. This model is a 5-phase linear process that builds a guideline for effective training. The ADDIE acronym stands for: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. Each phase of the ADDIE Model provides an outcome, to then to initiate the next phase. Once completed, further analysis might be needed, therefore, regenerating the ADDIE Model again.

 

PHASE 1
PHASE 2
PHASE 3
PHASE 4
PHASE 5
A - Analysis  (Phase1)

During the Analysis phase, the instructional problem is identified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and the learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified. 

  • Who is the target audience and their characteristics

  • Identify the new behavioral outcome

  • What are the delivery options

  • What is the timeline for project completion

D - Design (Phase 2)

After the Analysis phase, the Design phase nails down learning objectives, instructional methods, assessment instruments, activities, subject matter knowledge, lesson planning and media assets.

  • Documentation of the project's instructional, visual and technical strategy

  • Design user interface and user experience

  • Create a story board

  • Prototype creation

D - Development (Phase 3)

After the Design Phase, instructional designers develop the content assets outlined in the design phase. Content is written, graphics, audio, and photography are produced and assembled. 

I - Implementation (Phase 4)

During the Implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. 

Evaluate (Phase 5)

The Evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is an assessment that occurs all throughout the ADDIE Process and the Summative evaluation consists of tests conducted after the training materials have been delivered. 

The Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model:

The Dick and Carey's Systems Approach Model is a 9-phase linear process for design instruction. Each phase is dependent on one another and allows for instructional revision when needed. 

ARCS Model of Motivational Design:

Confidence

Relevance

Satisfaction

Attention

Student Motivation

Learning Requirements

Self-Confidence

Expectations

Attributions

Difficulty

Scheduling

Positive Outcomes

Unexpected Rewards

Natural Consequences

Avoid Negative Influences

Inquiry

Humor

Variability

Participation

Concreteness

Immediate applicability

Future Usefulness

Need Matching

Experience

Modeling

Choice

  • Student-centered approach
  • Facilitates self-growth
  • Flexible instruction
  • Encourage and sustain the student's motivation

Works Cited:

Dick, W., Carey, L. & Carey, J. (2009). The systematic design of Instruction. 7th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Piskurich, G. M. (2015). Rapid instructional design: Learning ID Fast and Right. 3rd Ed. Hoboken, NJ. 

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