• IT Definition – As defined by the Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT), Instructional Technology is “the study and ethical practices of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.”  (Dempsey & Reiser, 2018, p. 15)

  • My IT Definition – Similar to the 2008 AECT definition, my definition focuses on the study or practice of instructional technology to aid the facilitation of creating an environment of learning, which provides strategies of past learning models, learning theories, and tools (technology) for the learner to understand and acquire and master the skills that is taught in order to perform it. I feel that the 2008 definition incorporated all the positive qualities that helped define what the field is today as well as clearly defined what each stage of the process is set out to achieve and what is used to achieve it.

IT Definitions: 

Instructional Learning Theories and Important Theorists

Behaviorism Learning Theory

Results-driven theory that focuses on the inputs and outputs of behaviors. According to Dempsey and Reiser (2018), “behavioral learning theory is empirically based, which means that behavior is observed both before and after an intervention such as instruction has been implemented, and the observed changes in performance are related to what occurred during the intervention”. (p.53).

Cognitivism Learning Theory

“Cognitivism, like behaviorism, emphasizes the role that the environmental conditions play in facilitating learning.” (Ertmer & Newby, 2013, p.51). Unlike behaviorism, this theory influences the learner to processes the information that is learned and mentally categorize and chucking the information for future interpretation.

Constructivism Learning Theory

Where reality is constructed and ultimately determined by the learner; the role of the learner had assumed all responsibility, and the role of the instructor is relegated to designing the learning situation only. (Central, 2018). Through collaboration and self-interpretation of the information, the learner creates their own ideas of the information given. Learning is an active process where the learner is constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018).

B.F. Skinner

B.F. Skinner believed that "learning can be understood, explained, and predicted entirely on the basis of observable events." (Dempsey & Riser, 2018. Skinner believed that one should focus on the external observable caused of behavior rather than internal thoughts. He identified reinforcement as any event, positive or negative that strengthened the learners behavior. Skinner also created a process known as Programmed Instruction, that offered immediate incremental feedback on the learner's performance. 

Robert Gagne

Robert Gagné was an influential scholar who explored the cognitive strategies with a model to promote learning and achieve desirable outcomes. The five learning domains or learning outcomes included; “verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, and cognitive strategies”. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2018) Gagné also described nine crucial events of instruction to achieve learning outcomes successfully. Gagné’s described a hierarchical relationship within the intellectual skills domain of learning outcomes, as well as hierarchical analysis, which implied that students must master the skill before performing the skill.

Jerome Bruner

Jerome Bruner, an educational psychologist, he emphasized the "active process of discovery and trial and error through which a student can uncover the interrelationships of concepts and ideas." (Reis, 2016). Bruner also developed the concept of scaffolding theory, which provides the learner with enough support in the beginning stages of learning a new subject to allow the student be active in the learning process.

ID History Timeline


Benjamin Bloom's 

Taxonmoy of Educational Objectives


WWII - Audio Visual Training videos


Computer Assisted Instruction


John Sweller

Cognitive Load Theory


Rise of Mobile, Social and Blended Learning


B.F. Skinner 

Program Instruction


Robert F. Mager

Objectives for Program Instruction


Robert Gagne

9 Events of Instruction


Learning Management Systems

ETEC 500- Course Reflection

ETEC 500 really helped me connect my previous courses in regards with learning theories and the history of instructional technology. By creating my own educational philosophy of design, it helped me get an idea of all the foundational knowledge of the learning theories, as well as the different approaches that is best effective when utilizing that particular theory. I currently develop minimal instructional content for my profession, but after reviewing the material for this course,  it will allow me to effectively evaluate the environment and utilize best practices for that instructional content.

ETEC - 500 Educational Philosophy

Works cited:
Bloom's Taxonomy. (n.d.). Retrieved from Vanderbilt University: https://teaching.uncc.edu/sites/teaching.uncc.edu/files/media/files/file/GoalsAndObjectives/Bloom.pdf
Central, I. D. (2018). Learning theory. Retrieved from Instructional Design Central: https://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/learning-theory
Dempsey, J. V., & Reiser, R. A. (2018). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.
Florida, U. o. (2018). Gagne's 9 Events of Instruction. Retrieved from UF Center for Instructional Technology & Training: http://citt.ufl.edu/tools/gagnes-9-events-of-instruction/
Jerome Bruner. (n.d). Retrieved from Stanford University:

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