Research Methodologies
Research Methods

Inductive approach to start specific to become more general

Less structured to explore and learn more about the topic

Consists of narrative data

Questions may be broad, holistic and openended

Research topic is broad and question is more specific

Deductive approach to start general to become more specific

Consists of numerical data

Test, confirm and generalize

Consists of numerical data

Conducted in a controlled setting and normally with a large population to study

Data gathered first, then analyzed

Explanatory  collect quantitative data to provide the main focus, then collect qualitative data to expand on the finding

Exploratory  collect qualitative data to explore the topic in question, then collect quantitative data to find relationships or trends

Triangulation  both data collection methods are combined to utilize the strengths of each method and have a better understanding of the problem
Data Collection

Observations

Structured, unstructured and semistructured observations


Interviews

Structured, semistructured, openended interviews

Focus group


Journals

Student journals

Teacher journals

Class journal


Surveys, questionnaires and rating scales

Openended questions

Likert scale


Checklist

list of observable behaviors


Formative classroom assessments

Informal assessments to include oral questioning and student reflection


Summative classroom assessments

End of the course assessment


Standardized test scores
Data Analysis

Inductive Analysis

Organization

Coding Scheme  group data to provide similar types of information (find patterns or themes)


Description

Describe features or characteristics of the coded categories


Interpret

Interpret the data to find an answer to your question



Descriptive Statistics  simplify, summarize, and organize large numerical data

Measures of central tendency  what is typical or standard about a group of individuals

Mean  average set of scores

Median  middle score in equally distributed scores

Mode  most frequent score


Measures of dispersion  difference within the group of scores

Range  subtract lowest score from the highest score

Standard deviation  average distance of scores away from the mean


Measures of relationships  relationship between two variables

Bar chart  data presented visually



Inferential Statistics  statistical result given for entire population based on a sample of the population

Independentmeasures TTest  treatment group and controlled group

ANOVA  similar to a TTest, but with more than two groups

SPSS  Statistical software to calculate data

Resources:
Mertler, C. A. (2017). Action research: improving schools and empowering educators. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.
McMillan, J. H. (2016). Fundamentals of Educational Research. Boston: Pearson.